You Know How Networks Work, Want To Know How Everything Else Works? Here’s Some Books

I know, this is not about networking but I received few great feedbacks to my posts about the matter so I decided to share with you the materials I used to write it. It’s not about networking, but it is about everything.

QUANTA?!

I was writing about quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution process few months ago (which are network related). When I started to write those articles I was not aware that it will take me more that two months to write something close to understandable about quantum world. As it came out, like many times before, I was in unknown unknowns with that part of physics. I needed to start from scratch and learn some basics about quantum physics so I could understand and finally write about the application of quantum theory to computer network encryption process.

I went through few very interesting and not to extensive books and articles which helped me to get the basic info about quantum physics. Quantum physics basically describes how everything in the universe works starting from small to huge things and stuff that can not be described as things like different energy states etc. Things work differently if you zoom inside atoms and the way stuff is working down there will blow your mind.

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The Use of Graph Database in Network Complexity Analysis

Computer networks are probably the best example of graphs these days. I started therefore to consider graph database as an excellent tool for storing experimental results of my networking complexity analysis method. It’s a project that I’m doing (starting to do) in which I will try to create a better method of computer network complexity audit by combining few of already existing methods and by additionally enhancing some of their algorithms to get more precise results out of the whole thing.

Graph: Two nodes (vertices) connected with relation (edge)

The idea is that most of network complexity measurement mechanism rely strongly on graph theory in which most metrics for measuring network/graph complexity is related to connectivity, node distance, and similar graph characteristics but with no particular way of measuring implementation complexity nor operation complexity of resulting network. Furthermore, existing methods do not contain a way to evaluate network system from economic perspective in any way, which would greatly increase the use cases for this new method, specifically in planing and designing phases.

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Redistribute Static on Juniper & Cisco

In case you wondered how to redistribute static routes into dynamic routing protocol you are at the right place. This is normally a basic thing to do, but I will let you know how to do it in different ways on different vendor devices so it might be interesting.

We will go through few examples of normal static to OSPF redistribution and then see how it can be partially done with only part of static routes using route filters. I’ll do it on Cisco and Juniper devices so we can see what’s the difference.

Cisco

In Cisco CLI, redistribute static is fairly simple thing to do:

Router(config)#router ospf 1
Router(config-router)#redistribute static subnets

But you need to know that this simple command will take all static router available on that router and push them to OSPF and redistribute them to all other routers participating in that OSPF process.

If you want to redistribute just some of the static routes, or in our next example only static route towards the network 10.10.10.0/24 you need route map filtering in redistribution command to reference only that one network:

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Enable Source-Specific Multicast in Iperf

I was preparing lab environment to test configuration of Source-Specific Multicast on Juniper SRX Equipment and needed a tool to generate and measure Source-Specific Multicast streams.

I was aware that Iperf is a good enough tool to generate and measure multicast and unicast traffic but support for SSM was missing from current version. Fortunately there are always some developers which are interested in networking so one of them developed a special Iperf version 2.0.5 with SSM support.

The idea here is to show how to make this version of Iperf work on your Cent OS or similar Linux machine.

Here are few steps that should work from your Cent OS 6.8 Linux Server and hopefully from other similar distributions to:

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Source-Specific Multicast Configuration

In SSM, Source-Specific Multicast, things are done differently from standard multicast forwarding. SSM is specifying a group of hosts that are receiving same multicast stream using group IP address and additionally using stream unicast source IP.

In this article it is shown how to configure Source Specific Multicast on Cisco and Juniper equipment.

In standard multicast, forwarding is done using group IP address which is an IP from multicast dedicated range 224.0.0.0/4 (224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255) or FF00::/8 in IPv6. Each multicast group IP address is a single address which specifies all hosts receiving a specific stream, streamed towards that group IP address from multicast source. In standard multicast everybody can start to stream with some IP multicast group IP, becoming in that way, the multicast source.

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