Category: Network layer

Static Route Load Balance

How it works?

If you have two routers / two Layer3 switches connected with two L3 links (two paths) you can route with two equal static routes towards the same prefix and the router will load balance traffic across both links.

The idea is to make two same static routes on the same router but with different next-hops. The question was: Which link or which route will be used? And if the traffic will be load balanced, which mechanism will be used to share the traffic across both of links.

static route load balancing

 

ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 192.168.10.2
ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 192.168.11.2

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BGP communities

O men, when you start to write about BGP it is probably the time then you seriously start questioning yourself where did I go with myself. That is probably the moment in which you realize that there is a network geek sitting somewhere inside you. At least that is what happened to me when I finished to write this huge post. Don’t be scared, it’s fun to know about this thing below.

Simple start

Every local network is managed by his own network administrator. If the network become big enough and there are more than few sub-segments inside that network there will probably be some kind of routing protocol running inside. That routing protocol will be IGP or interior gateway protocol more probably OSPF as it’s vendor independent.

When we want to connect our network to other networks across the world, we are trying to connect it to the internet. The Internet is the network connecting most of the networks today and in that way it became the biggest inter-networking system in the world. To be able to get that huge network to function and get our LANs to act jointly there must be a routing protocol that enables it.

BGP – Border Gateway Protocol is that one.

Every individual network has his own policies that are enabling that network to behave as the administrator want. When connection networks to the internet network all those policies need to be tied together with BGP protocol in order to influence outside communication entering the local network and communications initiated from the local network going outside somewhere on the internet. This is done using more that few different BGP attributes. Those attributes are forwarded across specific prefixes. Sometimes those attributes are not only forwarded but also modified on the way, one of which is the community attribute.

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VXLAN – Virtual Extensible LAN

As the time goes by and the network with more and more virtualised servers and other devices are making that network more complicated, overlay technologies are rising to save the day for network administrators.

Virtual Extensible LAN – VXLAN is a new encapsulation technology used to run an overlay network on current Layer 3 communication network. An overlay network is considered as a practical network that is set up on the top of current layer 2 network. It also considers additional layer 3 technologies to aid flexible computer architectures. VXLAN will make sure it is very easy for network engineers to level out the right cloud computing setting while reasonably separating cloud applications and tenants. A cloud computing environment is defined as a multitenant, every tenant needs its separately configured logical network, which in return needs it’s very own network ID or identification.

What the hell that means?

What it this VXLAN doing actually. To put it simple, VXLAN can create logical network to connect your virtual machines across different networks. It is enabling us to make a layer 2 network for our VMs on top of our layer 3 network. That’s why VXLAN is a overlay technology. In “normal” network if you are connecting virtual machine to get the connection to some other virtual machine on different subnet, you need to use a layer 3 router to make a connection between networks. With VXLAN we can utilize VXLAN gateway of some sort to connect them without even exiting into physical network.

VXLAN frame

Image: VXLAN frame – taken from blog.cisco.com website

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Redundant Default Gateway solutions in IPv4 networks

This article is an introduction to different default gateway solutions. Those technologies are enabling devices on IPv4 local subnets to have more than one Default gateway configured or at least some configuration that make them work half the way of ideal redundant solution. Idea behind this article is to be an introduction to a set of articles that will explain different redundancy solutions based on IPv6 technology. Some of those technologies, will be used in future and some of them already existing and suggested to be used from day one on IPv6 implementation.

Default Gateway?!

Redundant default gateway

Default gateway is the next hop address of the device that leads the packets out of the local LAN segment. If there are packets destined to an IP address that is not from local subnet PC will forward those packets usually to router device that will have the information where to forward those packets in order to get them transferred towards the destination.

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ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol

ICMP protocol is a bunch of error, queries and response messages that are helping us every day to troubleshoot and manage our networks. At least if you found yourself in a networking engineer role.

Network protocol “ICMP” is known as a control protocol because it is used for the purpose of administration and management within an IP network. Described in RFC 792 ICMP is a vital part of Internet protocol implementations, but it is not holding the application data. It carries the network status information. This protocol is being utilized to provide the details of:

  • issues during the core communications and interactions of applications within a network
  • network obstacles and congestion
  • out-of-the-way hosts accessibility

ICMP e.g. PING utility that is being utilized the Internet control message protocol in order to check out if the distant hosts is reachable and in addition it generates info about round-trip point-in-time. Moreover, TRACEROUTE is a supportive feature of ICMP. This element can spot the intermediate hops in between a specified source machine and an end machine. TRACEROUTE will also give us a way to find where in the middle of the network one hop is blocking the path of the packet being delivered.

ICMP header part organization

Every one ICMP packet will take one header of 8-byte along with a variable-sized section for data. The initial header’s 4 bytes will be unchanging and consistent. And opening byte will be reserved for the type of ICMP while second byte will be kept to store the ICMP code. Consecutively the 3rd and 4th bytes serve as the whole message checksum. But the rest of header’s 4–byte can be varied and conditional on the ICMP type plus its code. ICMP4 was introduced for the IP version 4.

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