If we speak about what is networking and then try explain how does networking work or maybe how does internet work in some technical way, soon we will have to mention the routing protocols. We should mention routing protocols as the most important networking protocols when it comes to transfer packets from origin to destination points on the network. After all they are responsible for finding the best way across our multipath network.
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A routing protocol (either BGP or OSPF) is simply a set of rules, messages, and of routing algorithms. The key purpose of such internet protocols is to be taught the routes to some other networks by the routers which aren’t actually linked to them. Anyway, with a dynamic routing protocol, routers can discover virtual paths with dynamism as regards to the other distant networks. Moreover, with these protocol’s help such networks can be automatically added to a network’s particular routing table. But two most important routing protocols categories are in use today. And name of them are as: IGP (Interior Gateway Protocols) which is the majority suitable for lone independent system. Some examples of routing protocols that fall under this category are as follow: are IGRP, RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF.
But EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocols) routing protocol is used between the different systems routers. And BGP is the classification of EGP (a common routing protocol).
Facts about RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
RFC (Request for Comment, that is a description of a standard for networking protocols.) for the routing information protocol is 1058. A routing daemon (a program) can insert the routing course of action to the system. If the routes to the destination are many then the best one will be chosen for forwarding. Anyhow, the RIP message may contain: command, version (ver1 or ver2), family, IP address (32 bit), metrics (hop count) and information about around 25 possible routes. But RIP message set-up may contain: request, reply, asks over to throw the entire or part of routing table for the system, and poll entry etc. Routing table broadcasts are sent periodically by RIP to the neighboring routers. But due to the certain drawbacks of routing information protocol (RIP) like: having no subnet addressing information and consume lots of time for making a link stabilized, after its failure; RIP Ver2 is defined by the RFC (Request for Comment) 1388. Some added fields of this version is included a 32 bit subnet mask, an IP address of the next hop and a routing domain (daemon identifier) etc.
Facts about OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
Open Shortest Path First as a link state protocol checks the link status with respect to each of its connecting neighbors. After that, obtained information is sent to them. It (OSPF) has the quality to stabilize a route or link after its failure in much more quicker way than those systems based on the distance vector protocol. Features of OSPF: support subnet Mask, allocate traffic regularly over the equivalent cost routes, can use multicasting and use IP directly.
Costs for specific hops can be set by the administrators. Adjacent routers swap information instead of broadcasting to all routers.
Facts about BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
RFC 1267, 1268, in addition to 1497 have expressed BGP protocol that is running over the top of TCP (transmission control protocol) using the port No 179. Updates are triggered whenever required. Some other features of BGP protocol are as: distance vectoring usage, failures detections by sending periodic messages and information exchanges about accessible networks etc.
Facts about EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is an improved edition of the Cisco Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). It is considered as both an interior gateway protocol (IGP) and an exterior gateway protocol, meant for the purpose of inter-domain routing. An EIGRP running router can store information about its neighbors’ routing tables. Fast convergence besides support for the variable-length subnet masking and for partial updates is possible with it.
EIGRP can use: bandwidth, delay reliability and load metrics traits while its components are including: neighbor discovery/recovery, and reliable transport protocol etc. From internet point of view, packet routing is generally divided into two sets, named as: interior and exterior routing. But the routing is performed with an algorithm help that is stored up in a router’s memory. Moreover, you can also observe two main categories of routing algorithms: distance vector and link-state.
Distance Vector Routing is chiefly determines the best paths without concerning its destination. Distance value is corresponded to by calculating more than one metric. Well, an IP distance vector routing protocols like RIP v1 (Routing Information Protocol v1), RIP v2 or Routing Information Protocol v2 and Interior Gateway Routing Protocols are still in use because these are simple as well as excellent at their job in the small networks with a little management, if it is required.
But Link State protocols are able to use sophisticated methods for taking into concern link variables like bandwidth and reliability.
Facts about IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)
IS-IS as a routing protocol is able to forward information within a physically connected computers group with efficiency. With respect to a packet switched network, the task of routing is done by finding the best path for the datagrams.
The inter-domain routing protocol “IDRP” is consisted on the path-vector algorithm for routing. It provides the routing job for the OSI defined networking environments, which is more-or-less alike to BGP protocol in the TCP/IP networks.