Category: Application layer

PNRP the New DNS – Peer Name Resolution Protocol

PNRP – The Peer Name Resolution Protocol is new protocol made by Microsoft which is one of the first technology that will change the way we think about naming resolution in computer networking and possibly be the next DNS – Domain Name System like technology. PNRP is the new DNS but there are so much differences between them that it deserves an article on this blog.

Just to remind, is few simple words, DNS is a technology that enables us to type the domain name in the browser and leaves to Domain Name System to translate the domain name to IP address of the server where the web page is published.

As we are stepping forward to IPv6 implementation in the whole world in next years, there are technologies and future services that will not function at their best using DNS. In this case Microsoft was one of the first to develop a new technology, decentralized technology that will rely on neighbor computer for the name resolution and completely rely on IPv6 addressing. The Per Name Resolution protocol was the answer.

In case of DNS, it depends on a hierarchical structure of naming, while PNRP depends on peer systems in order to resolve the computer system’s location. Mainly, PNRP is a referral system that operates lookups on the basis of data it is familiar with.

PNRP - Peer Name Resolution ProtocolHere is a simple example, if you require to search Computer 1 and you are close to Computers 2 and 3, it is important for your system to know whether Computer 2 knows Computer 1 or not. If the response of Computer 2 is positive, only then a a link to Computer 1 is provided to you. If the reply is in negative, then the system asks Computer 3 whether it knows Computer 1 and the same method is used with Computer 2. If none of the computers knows Computer 1, then the request is sent to other computers close to the system till it successfully finds the one that is familiar with Computer 1.

There are number of ways in which PNRP is different from the DNS service:

BGP – Border Gateway Protocol

BGP is the Internet routing protocol. He is making the Internet work.

BGP protocol performs actions by maintaining IP networks table for the biggest network in the world – The Internet. The BGP protocol, as a code of behavior, supported core routing decisions over the Internet.  Instead of using traditional IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) metrics, BGP protocol relies upon available path, network guidelines and rule-sets for routing decision making purposes. And just for this feature, it is sometimes expressed as a reachability protocol. The main idea behind the BGP creation was to replace the EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol) to permit a complete decentralized routing. NSFNET backbone is the best example of a decentralized system.

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a configuration protocol for the host’s set of connections on the IP networks. Obviously, computers within IP networks should be configured to communicate with each other. But some other information is needed to understand the mechanical of online communication such as IP (internet protocol) addresses, default routes and prefixes. DHCP protocol will let you to get rid of manual handling of certain tasks with a network administrator’s help. A central database should be connected to a network, if this protocol incorporated into it so the chances relating duplicating resource assignments can be eliminated.

FTP – File Transfer Protocol

To get the general idea on the subject of FTP, it is important to be acquainted with the word protocol as a significant set of rules and conventions. The aim behind the protocols introduction intent was to make available communication (computer to computer) facilities. And well designed FTP is most suitable for this purpose and that’s why still in use. Though, it is on the screen since 1970s.

FTP is resided on the application layer of OSI standard model so particular tasks can be obtained with its use such as to uphold intercontinental communication and to produce standards relating online communication. File Transfer Protocol is well documented in the form of RFC 959. But all other related documents on the FTP technicality overviews are available at RFC sourcebook. The reliability of this protocol can be judged from that, it belongs to the oldest internet protocols family but can be implemented with the help of TCP protocol.


The unique Gopher arrangements were taken as public in the year 1991 and you can view its depiction from the RFC 1436. This protocol was given the almost same name as of the sport’s team of Minnesota University, “Golden Gophers”.

The TCP/IP Application layer protocol “Gopher” was launched to share out, uncover, and to process documents online. Though initially, it was opened for communal as a smart option against WWW (World Wide Web) because of its menu documentation support, but in due course it remained completely futile to receive any popularity. The reason behind this infamy was that it offered some non maintainable, by the Web, features. According to one school of thought, the reason of this protocol’s collapse was its some degree of structure too and that was its non-flexibility especially when compared it to Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTML, which is Gopher’s real competitor.